International Building Exhibitions
The IBA Format
The tradition of the building exhibitions is already more than 100 years old: by the mid-19th century it had become standard practice to present technical innovations in the area of building at world fairs. The tradition of independent building exhibitions was founded in 1901 in the Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt as a documentation of the art of building and residential culture; in architectural terms the results are regarded as milestone of German Jugendstil. Although not in the framework of an IBA, in Vienna in 1932 it proved possible to implement a comparable approach to the consistent development of an understanding of building, living and life combined with the freedom of the individual in the form of the International Exhibition / Werkbundsiedlung. Under the artistic direction of Josef Frank in the years 1930 to 1932 the Vienna Werkbundsiedlung brought together 30 architects from Austria and abroad and erected a total of 70 houses in Vienna’s 13th municipal district. The contribution by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, the first woman in Austria to complete her study of architecture, represented the efforts of the city at that time to manifest modern, contemporary living along with the efficient use of living space in the floor plans of the dwellings and to develop this further. The exhibition ran from 4 June to 7 August 1932, during which time the development on the south-western fringe of Vienna attracted 100 000 visitors.
Werkbundsiedlung Vienna, 1932
(c) ÖNB, Bildarchiv und Grafiksammlung
In Germany a series of international building exhibitions took place at irregular intervals and with several, very different thematic focuses. Common to all of them is that they reflect their time in terms of social, technical and cultural tendencies and developments. Against the background of the Vienna_IBA “New Social Housing” it seems worthwhile to take a look back in history and to highlight above all those building exhibitions which, in both a narrower and broader sense, undertook an examination of the housing question.